Water quality monitoring and surveillance

In an endeavor to supply clean and potable drinking water, the water to be supplied is tested at two stages, first at the time of development of source to ascertain if the source would yield water within safe chemical-content limits. Thereafter, water samples from the functioning water supply schemes are tested to monitor any change in quality of water over the years. In order to ensure the quality of drinking water, the following steps are being taken:


I. Frequent Water Sampling :-

WSS Department has evolved a system for very frequent checking of Water Quality at Rural Water Supply Schemes, where Department officials including Junior Engineers, Sub Divisional Engineers and Executive Engineers are required to test a specific number of water samples. Target has been fixed for each individual engineer to get these tests done on monthly basis. If the water quality of any sample is not up to the mark, remedial steps are taken without any loss of time. As a result:

a) 4450 water samples are checked every month to monitor disinfection (through chlorination / silver ionization) of drinking water from Rural Water Supply Schemes.

b) 3000 water samples are collected every month for physical & chemical analysis.

c) Similarly around 2140 water samples are collected every month to check indicative bacteriological contamination through H2S Kits. As and when there is any indication of pollution through this test, samples are immediately collected for bacteriological analysis.

II. Training to PRIs :-

WSS Department held Workshops to train the village personnel / PRI person under Govt. of India Water Quality Surveillance Programme. Each Workshop was held for a cluster of 5 villages with participation of five persons / PRI members from each village. As a result all villages stand covered with the training programme.

Each village has been provided with a water testing kit which is capable of testing 100 water samples for 12 parameters i.e. pH, Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride, TDS, Fluoride, Iron, Ammonia, Nitrate, Nitrite, Phosphate & Residual Chlorine. In addition, field test H2S Kits have also been distributed to different villages for testing water of different sources for bacteriological contamination.

III. Mobile Water Testing Laboratory :-

Department has started a Mobile Water Testing Laboratory to help the Department in effective surveillance of drinking water quality in the rural areas of the State. This lab is capable of conducting two physical tests (Turbidity, PH), seven basic chemical tests (Fluoride, Iron, Residual Chlorine, Nitrate, Sulphate, TDS and Alkalinity), four heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Manganese) and Bacteriological examination of water samples. Mobile lab helps in quickly identifying the water quality problem on the spot at site. This lab is also used to counter check the quality of water from different water supply schemes which are being checked regularly by the departmental officers.

IV. Strengthening of Water Testing facilities :

At present there is a central water testing laboratory at Patiala in addition to district level laboratories at Bathinda, Ferozerpur, Amritsar. In order to provide testing facilities nearest to the water supply schemes, water testing laboratories have been set up at all the 20 district headquarters as well as at seven other divisional head quarters i.e. Pathankot, Rajpura, Anandpur Sahib, Abohar, Fazilka, Malout & Batala. These labs check quality of water according to specifications for potable water as per Bureau of Indian Standards: BIS-10500-1991.


The Parameters which are tested for drinking water supply are as follows: -

Sr.No Substance Of Characterstics Requirement
(Acceptable Limit)
Max. Permissible Limit
Physical & Chemical Characteristics Essential Characteristics
1 Colour, (Hazen units, Max) 5 15
2 Odour Agreeable Agreeable
3 Taste Agreeable Agreeable
4 Turbidity (NTU, Max) 1 5
5 pH Value 6.5 to 8.5 No Relaxation
6. Total Dissolved Solids, mg/l, Max. 500mg/l 2000 mg/l
7 Total Hardness (as CaCo3) mg/lit. Max 200 mg/l 600 mg/l
8. Total Alkalinity as Calcium Carbonate, mg/l, Max. 200 mg/l 600 mg/l
9 Iron (as Fe) mg/lit.Max0.3  mg/lNo relaxation
10 Chlorides (as Cl.) mg/lit.Max250  mg/l1000 mg/l
11 Residual, free, chlorine, mg/lit, Min0.2  mg/l1.0 mg/l
Desirable Characteristics
12 Sulphate (as SO4), mg/l, Max. 200 mg/l 400 mg/l
13 Sulphide (as H2S), mg/l, Max. 0.05 mg/l No relaxation
14 Nitrate (as NO3), mg/l, Max. 45 mg/l No relaxation
15 Fluoride (as F), mg/l, Max. 1.0 mg/l 1.5 mg/l
16 Calcium (as Ca), mg/l, Max. 75 mg/l 200 mg/l
17 Copper (as Cu), mg/l, Max. 0.05 mg/l 1.5 mg/l
18 Magnesium (as Mg), mg/l, Max. 30 mg/l 100 mg/l
19 Manganese (as Mn), mg/l, Max. 0.1 mg/l 0.3 mg/l
20 Mercury (as Hg), mg/l, Max. 0.001 mg/l No relaxation
21 Cadmium (as Cd), mg/l, Max. 0.003 mg/l No relaxation
22 Selenium (as Se), mg/l, Max. 0.01 mg/l No relaxation
213 Total Arsenic (as As), mg/l, Max. 0.01 mg/l 0.05 mg/l
24 Cyanide (as CN), mg/l, Max. 0.05 mg/l No relaxation
25 Lead (as Pb), mg/l, Max. 0.01 mg/l No relaxation
26 Zinc (as Zn), mg/l, Max. 5 mg/l 15 mg/l
27 Total Chromium (as Cr), mg/l, Max. 0.05 mg/l No relaxation
28 Aluminium (as Al), mg/l, Max. 0.03 mg/l 0.2 mg/l
29 Boron (as B), mg/l, Max. 0.5 mg/l 1.0 mg/l
30 Ammonia (as total Ammonia-N), mg/l, Max. 0.5 mg/l No relaxation
31 Barium (as Ba), mg/l, Max. 0.7 mg/l No relaxation
32 Silver (as Ag), mg/l, Max. 0.1 mg/l No relaxation
33 Molybdenum (as Mo), mg/l, Max. 0.07 mg/l No relaxation
34 Nickel (as Ni), mg/l, Max. 0.02 mg/l No relaxation
35 Phenolic Compound (as C6H5OH), mg/l, Max 0.001 mg/l 0.002 mg/l
36 Polychlorinated biphenyls, mg/l, Max. 0.0005 mg/l No relaxation
37 Polynuclear aromatic Hydrocarbons (as PAH),
 mg/l, Max.
0.0001 mg/l No relaxation
38 Anionic Detergents (as MBAS), mg/l, Max. 0.2 mg/l 1.0 mg/l
39 Chloramines (as Cl2), mg/l, Max. 4.0 mg/l No relaxation
40 Trihalomethanes :    
  (a) Bromoform, mg/l, Max. 0.1 mg/l No relaxation
  (b) Dibromochloromethane, mg/l, Max. 0.1 mg/l No relaxation
  (c) Bromodichloromethane, mg/l, Max. 0.06 mg/l No relaxation
  (d) Chloroform, mg/l, Max. 0.2 mg/l No relaxation
41 Radioactive Materials :    
  (a) Alpha emitters, Bq/l, Max. 0.1 Bq/l No relaxation
  (b) Beta  emitters, Bq/l, Max. 1.0 Bq/l  No relaxation
  (c) Uranium, g/l or ppb (As per AERB) 60 g/l or ppb No relaxation
42 Bacteriological :    
  (a) E. Coli or thermotolerant coliform bacteria Shall not be
detectable in any
100 ml sample
No relaxation
  (b) Total Coliform bacteria Shall not be
 detectable in any
100 ml sample
No relaxation
43 Mineral Oil, mg/l, Max. 0.5 mg/l No relaxation
44 Pesticides As per IS-10500 : 2012 No relaxation

Bacteriological CharacteristicsEndEditable -->

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